Archive For The “General Reference” Category
By Linfan Mao
A combinatorial map is a attached topological graph cellularly embedded in a floor. This monograph concentrates at the automorphism workforce of a map, that's regarding the automorphism teams of a Klein floor and a Smarandache manifold, additionally utilized to the enumeration of unrooted maps on orientable and non-orientable surfaces. a few effects for the automorphism teams of maps, Klein surfaces and Smarandache manifolds and the enumeration of unrooted maps underlying a graph on orientable and non-orientable surfaces are came upon. An straightforward type for the closed s-manifolds is located. Open difficulties on the topic of the combinatorial maps with the differential geometry, Riemann geometry and Smarandache geometries also are provided during this monograph for the additional purposes of the combinatorial maps to the classical arithmetic.
By H.S. Freeman, A.T. Peters
This quantity examines the chemistry of usual and artificial dyes produced for non-textile markets, the place a lot new uncomplicated study in colour chemistry is now occurring. the 1st team of chapters covers the layout, synthesis, houses and alertness expertise concerning dyes for electronic printing and images. The reader may be proud of the breadth and intensity of knowledge offered in each one case. Of specific curiosity is the dialogue of recommendations for the layout of dyes in those different types, with emphasis on improving technical houses. In view of sure new advancements, the ink-jet bankruptcy comprises effects from reports relating dyes for textiles. the 3 chapters comprising part II of this quantity disguise the large topic of dyes for meals, drug and beauty functions after which supply an in-depth examine dyes for biomedical purposes and molecular popularity. The bankruptcy on dyes for molecular reputation locations emphasis on functions within the organic sciences, together with sensory fabrics and synthetic receptors. whereas the previous issues were lined in different places long ago, the current chapters are unrivaled in scope. part III presents an in-depth assessment of the layout of laser dyes and dye-based useful fabrics. within the first of the 2 chapters, the key rules of laser operation are summarized. this is often through a dialogue of spectroscopic homes, reminiscent of activation and deactivation of absorbed gentle by way of laser dyes. ways to the improvement of latest laser dyes are awarded. the second one bankruptcy relates to the synthesis of dicyanopyrazine-based multifunctional dyes. The noticeable and fluorescence spectra of those dyes in answer and the forged nation are correlated with their three-d molecular buildings. Molecular stacking habit and reliable country houses of those "multifunctional" dye fabrics are awarded. the ultimate workforce of chapters relates to average dyes and dyes for traditional substrates. lately, the impact between sure shoppers that "natural" is better/safer has generated a lot curiosity within the use of ordinary dyes instead of synthetics. This has resulted in a couple of brief dialogue papers within which the environmental benefits to utilizing common dyes were wondered. The preliminary bankruptcy during this workforce presents either a historic examine normal dyes and a accomplished compilation of typical dye buildings and their assets. although common dyes are of curiosity as colorants for textiles, chosen ones are used essentially in nutrients and cosmetics. bankruptcy ten offers an replace at the author's prior stories of structure-color-relationships between precursors hired within the shade of hair. Chemical constitutions characterizing hair dye buildings are offered, besides a precis of accessible precursors and their environmental houses. equally, the bankruptcy on leather-based dyes covers constitutions and nomenclature, as well as supplying fascinating views at the starting place and use of leather-based, the dyeing of leather-based, and key environmental matters. This quantity is concluded with one other examine colours in nature. to that end, instead of revisiting shades in flowers, an enticing bankruptcy facing colour within the absence of colorants is gifted. bankruptcy twelve covers simple ideas of colour technology and illustrates how 3-D assemblies resulting in a plethora of colours are dealt with in nature. it really is our desire that this strange "color chemistry" bankruptcy will invoke rules that bring about the layout of necessary colorants. The chapters awarded during this quantity exhibit that colour chemistry nonetheless has a lot to supply people with inquiring minds who're trying to find a profession course. This paintings highlights the creativity of present day colour chemists and the big variety of attention-grabbing non-textile parts from which a profession could be introduced.
By Ronald Syme
By R. M. Johnson
By A. G. Fishburn
By Frank R. Spellman
To successfully take care of any chemical-based challenge, together with toxins, environmental, well-being and safeguard pros should have a minimum of a rudimentary knowing of the elemental ideas of chemistry. This publication offers such pros with an introductory reference that may aid them to appreciate the elemental rules of chemistry and to appreciate these rules as they follow to the environmental compliance courses that keep an eye on office task. Written for an individual whose paintings contains environmental administration, making plans, impression evaluate, defense, or compliance, or whose duties comprise designing, enforcing, and comparing a health and wellbeing and protection application, Chemistry for Nonchemists presents a close review of chemistry and its rules, chemical nomenclature, chemical reactions, and their software to regulatory compliance courses below a number of the environmental, health and wellbeing and safeguard legislation. This ebook can assist readers comprehend the "laws" of chemistry and the ramifications of out-of-control chemistry. The ebook starts with a evaluate of the periodic desk, a glance at chemical constitution and bonding, and an evidence of keywords. the writer, a 35-year environmental veteran, then specializes in the basics of natural and inorganic chemistry, the chemistry of water, and chemical reactions as they observe to environmental compliance courses. From there, he strikes to extra complex discussions of solvents and solutes and concludes with in-depth examinations of complex sampling and research, the complicated reactions of metals, and chemistry's function in danger overview.
Chapter 1 Molecular and digital constitution of the amide workforce (pages 1–72): M. B. Robin, F. A. Bovey and Harold Basch
Chapter 2 Synthesis of amides (pages 73–185): A. L. J. Beckwith
Chapter three Acid?base and complexing homes of amides (pages 187–243): R. B. Homer and C. D. Johnson
Chapter four Rearrangement and removal of the amido crew (pages 245–288): Joseph F. Bieron and Frank J. Dinan
Chapter five Photochemistry of the amido crew (pages 289–308): Ionel Rosenthal
Chapter 6 Radiation chemistry of amides (pages 309–334): Owen H. Wheeler
Chapter 7 Chemistry of imidic compounds (pages 335–381): Owen H. Wheeler and Oscar Rosado
Chapter eight The chemistry of thioamides (pages 383–475): W. Walter and J. Voss
Chapter nine The chemistry of the thiohydrazide workforce (pages 477–514): W. Walter and ok. J. Reubke
Chapter 10 The chemistry of hydrazides (pages 515–600): Hans Paulsen and Dieter Stoye
Chapter eleven organic formation and reactions of the amido team (pages 601–684): J. E. Reimann and R. U. Byerrum
Chapter 12 Directing and activating results of the amido team (pages 685–729): J. A. Shafer
Chapter thirteen Reactions of the carboxamide team (pages 731–857): Brian G. Challis and Judith A. Challis
By Nathan Brown
This primary systematic remedy of the idea that and perform of scaffold hopping exhibits the methods of the exchange and offers helpful information for the reader's personal projects.
The first part serves as an advent to the subject by means of describing the concept that of scaffolds, their discovery, range and illustration, and their value for locating new chemical entities. the subsequent half describes the most typical instruments and techniques for scaffold hopping, even if topological, shape-based or structure-based. equipment resembling CATS, characteristic timber, characteristic element Pharmacophores (FEPOPS), and SkelGen are mentioned between many others. the ultimate half includes 3 totally documented real-world examples of profitable drug improvement tasks by way of scaffold hopping that illustrate the advantages of the technique for medicinal chemistry.
While many of the case reports are taken from medicinal chemistry, chemical and structural biologists also will profit tremendously from the insights provided here.
By W. C. Sumpter, F. M. Miller
Chapter I Indole (pages 1–69):
Chapter II Carbazole (pages 70–109):
Chapter III Isatin (pages 110–133):
Chapter VI Oxindole (pages 134–153):
Chapter V Isatogens (pages 154–162):
Chapter VI Indoxyl (pages 163–170):
Chapter VII Indigo, ?2,2??Bipseudoindoxyl (pages 171–195):
Chapter VIII usual items Containing the Indole Nucleus (pages 196–288):
By Stuart Warren