New PDF release: Applied optics and optical engineering,Vol.X

By Robert R. Shannon and James C. Wynant

ISBN-10: 0124086101

ISBN-13: 9780124086104

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Example text

This leads to loss of efficiency. At worst, light with the undesired polarization is transmitted. This leads to a poor extinction ratio, since larger angles tend to be associated with a large fraction 2. Linear Polarizers 35 of the rays in most optical systems. A pictorial representation of the problem is given in Figure 3-2. Some designs are more tolerant in this respect; for example, Ahrens, Glazebrook, and Glan-Thompson polarizers may accept rays over a 20° range, but the Glan-Taylor should be limited to approximately a 7° range.

With multiple-order plates the problem is again a factor of n worse. For rhomb devices the variation of the retardance with incidence angle is a consequence of the angle-dependence of the phase change after total internal reflection. For Fresnel rhombs, acceptance angles of 8° cause approximately 2% variation in retardation, and the nondeviating, quarter-wave rhomb device accepts light with only 1° divergence with similar precision. The half-wave rhomb device actually has a wider acceptance angle than the Fresnel rhomb since increases in incidence angle in the first rhomb are compensated by decreased angles of incidence in the second.

Examination of polarizers made by different manufacturers clearly demonstrates that some manufacturers have access to higher-quality calcite than others. The wavelength performance of prism polarizers will be mainly described here for the ultraviolet region since this is where unique benefits justify their expense and other limitations. 2 μιιι. In the ultraviolet the first barrier to perfor­ mance in a prism polarizer is any cement that is used between the prisms for refractive index matching. Canada balsam, for example, prevents use at wave­ lengths shorter than 330 nm.

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Applied optics and optical engineering,Vol.X by Robert R. Shannon and James C. Wynant


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