By K.P. Prabhakaran Nair
Referred to as the "King" of spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and the "Queen" of spices, cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum M.), either perennial vegetation of the tropics, are crucial and most generally wanted spice plants of the area. They either have many makes use of, for instance, either are used as flavourings and as a drugs. This ebook offers a finished assessment of those vitally important spice vegetation, covering starting place, heritage, geographical distribution, creation, financial system and their makes use of. Discusses the 2 significant spices of serious financial price to the constructing international. the writer is an eminent scientist who has received various awards for his paintings during this area. Read more...
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Extra resources for Agronomy and economy of black pepper and cardamom
Organic manuring is a very commonly adopted practice in pepper production in India and parts of Asia. This can either be through the use of fresh vegetative matter or through the use of “burnt earth” (Bergman, 1940; Harden and White, 1934). In the former category, freshly chopped materials (such as leaves, stems, and the like) from a number of trees are used. The trees generally used are E. indica, Garuga pinnata, and Grevillea robusta (Sivakumar and Wahid, 1994). , 1981). Holes are dug and about 85 g of manure are placed about 20 cm away from the main stem of the vine.
Their production is as follows. Runner shoots from high-yielding and healthy plants are kept coiled at the base of wooden pegs fixed at the bottom of the plant so as to prevent the growing shoots from spreading on the soil and striking roots. These runner shoots can be separated from the mother plant in winter (January–February) by snapping them using scissors and are disinfected by dipping them in a fungicide solution, such as oxychloride or a Bordeaux mixture for 1 min; they are later surface dried and cut into three noded strips after clipping the leaves; they are then planted either in raised soil beds or PVC bags filled with a mixture of soil, sand, and some farmyard manure, which will provide enough nutrients in a growth substrate.
Because the zinc concentration in soil solution is normally very low, the supply to plant roots by mass flow can only account for a very small fraction of plant demand. For instance, with a transpiration coefficient of 300 l kg1 dry matter and a corresponding zinc concentration of 107 M in the soil solution, approximately 2 mg of zinc can be supplied by mass flow against a demand of 10–30 mg kg1 zinc dry weight of plant tissue. )—The “King of Spices” 27 In calcareous soils, as the zinc concentration is of a much lower order of approximately 108 M, the supply by mass flow could be very much lower (Marschner, 1994), indicating that mass flow can only contribute very negligibly to meet plant needs for zinc.
Agronomy and economy of black pepper and cardamom by K.P. Prabhakaran Nair